Oracle控制文件丟失恢復歸檔模式方法

 更新時間:2022年07月07日 10:42:39   作者:Lucifer三思而后行  
這篇文章主要為大家介紹了Oracle控制文件丟失恢復歸檔模式詳解,有需要的朋友可以借鑒參考下,希望能夠有所幫助,祝大家多多進步,早日升職加薪<BR>

一、查看控制文件路徑和內容

SQL> show parameter control_files
NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
control_files                        string      /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl, /
                                                 u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_a
                                                 rea/orcl/control02.ctl
[oracle@orcl:/oradata/orcl]$ ll /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl 
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9748480 Apr 15 10:01 /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl
[oracle@orcl:/oradata/orcl]$ ll /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl
-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9748480 Apr 15 10:03 /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl
--確保開啟歸檔
SQL> archive log list
Database log mode              No Archive Mode
Automatic archival             Disabled
Archive destination            /archivelog
Oldest online log sequence     10
Current log sequence           12
SQL> select distinct dbms_rowid.rowid_block_number(rowid) from props$;
DBMS_ROWID.ROWID_BLOCK_NUMBER(ROWID)
------------------------------------
                                 801
--控制文件內容
--生成控制文件
SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace as '/home/oracle/ctlbak.ctl';
Database altered.
--查看trace內容
[oracle@orcl:/home/oracle]$ cat ctlbak.ctl 
-- The following are current System-scope REDO Log Archival related
-- parameters and can be included in the database initialization file.
--
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST=''
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST=''
--
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=%t_%s_%r.dbf
--
-- DB_UNIQUE_NAME="orcl"
--
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG='SEND, RECEIVE, NODG_CONFIG'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES=4
-- STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL
-- STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST=?/dbs/arch
-- FAL_CLIENT=''
-- FAL_SERVER=''
--
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='LOCATION=/archivelog'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='OPTIONAL REOPEN=300 NODELAY'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='ARCH NOAFFIRM NOEXPEDITE NOVERIFY SYNC'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='REGISTER NOALTERNATE NODEPENDENCY'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='NOMAX_FAILURE NOQUOTA_SIZE NOQUOTA_USED NODB_UNIQUE_NAME'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1='VALID_FOR=(PRIMARY_ROLE,ONLINE_LOGFILES)'
-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_1=ENABLE
--
-- Below are two sets of SQL statements, each of which creates a new
-- control file and uses it to open the database. The first set opens
-- the database with the NORESETLOGS option and should be used only if
-- the current versions of all online logs are available. The second
-- set opens the database with the RESETLOGS option and should be used
-- if online logs are unavailable.
-- The appropriate set of statements can be copied from the trace into
-- a script file, edited as necessary, and executed when there is a
-- need to re-create the control file.
--
--     Set #1. NORESETLOGS case
--
-- The following commands will create a new control file and use it
-- to open the database.
-- Data used by Recovery Manager will be lost.
-- Additional logs may be required for media recovery of offline
-- Use this only if the current versions of all online logs are
-- available.
-- After mounting the created controlfile, the following SQL
-- statement will place the database in the appropriate
-- protection mode:
--  ALTER DATABASE SET STANDBY DATABASE TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE
STARTUP NOMOUNT
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
    MAXLOGFILES 16
    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
    MAXDATAFILES 100
    MAXINSTANCES 8
    MAXLOGHISTORY 292
LOGFILE
  GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
-- STANDBY LOGFILE
DATAFILE
  '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
;
-- Commands to re-create incarnation table
-- Below log names MUST be changed to existing filenames on
-- disk. Any one log file from each branch can be used to
-- re-create incarnation records.
-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/archivelog/1_1_1069941729.dbf';
-- Recovery is required if any of the datafiles are restored backups,
-- or if the last shutdown was not normal or immediate.
RECOVER DATABASE
-- Database can now be opened normally.
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
-- Commands to add tempfiles to temporary tablespaces.
-- Online tempfiles have complete space information.
-- Other tempfiles may require adjustment.
ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf'
     SIZE 30408704  REUSE AUTOEXTEND OFF;
-- End of tempfile additions.
--
--     Set #2. RESETLOGS case
--
-- The following commands will create a new control file and use it
-- to open the database.
-- Data used by Recovery Manager will be lost.
-- The contents of online logs will be lost and all backups will
-- be invalidated. Use this only if online logs are damaged.
-- After mounting the created controlfile, the following SQL
-- statement will place the database in the appropriate
-- protection mode:
--  ALTER DATABASE SET STANDBY DATABASE TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE
STARTUP NOMOUNT
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" RESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
    MAXLOGFILES 16
    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
    MAXDATAFILES 100
    MAXINSTANCES 8
    MAXLOGHISTORY 292
LOGFILE
  GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
-- STANDBY LOGFILE
DATAFILE
  '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
;
-- Commands to re-create incarnation table
-- Below log names MUST be changed to existing filenames on
-- disk. Any one log file from each branch can be used to
-- re-create incarnation records.
-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/archivelog/1_1_1069941729.dbf';
-- Recovery is required if any of the datafiles are restored backups,
-- or if the last shutdown was not normal or immediate.
RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
-- Database can now be opened zeroing the online logs.
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
-- Commands to add tempfiles to temporary tablespaces.
-- Online tempfiles have complete space information.
-- Other tempfiles may require adjustment.
ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf'
     SIZE 30408704  REUSE AUTOEXTEND OFF;
-- End of tempfile additions.
--

當前數據庫存在兩份控制文件,分別位于數據文件路徑和快速閃回區路徑。

二、模擬控制文件丟失情況:

1、未丟失全部控制文件

刪除快閃區中的控制文件,強制關閉數據庫。

[oracle@orcl:/oradata/orcl]$ rm -rf /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl 
[oracle@orcl:/oradata/orcl]$ ll /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl     
ls: cannot access /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl: No such file or directory
--開一個新的session,此時數據庫已經處于報錯狀態,無論什么操作都會報錯,此時強制關閉數據庫
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;
select open_mode from v$database
                      *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file:
'/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> 

從數據文件路徑復制一份控制文件到快閃區中,嘗試再次關閉是否報錯。

--復制控制文件
[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ cp /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl control02.ctl
[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ ls
control02.ctl
--開啟數據庫
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size                  2253664 bytes
Variable Size             452988064 bytes
Database Buffers         1140850688 bytes
Redo Buffers                7319552 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

2、全部丟失,控制文件存在備份

有兩種方式:

1、通過備份的文件進行重建控制文件

2、通過rman恢復控制文件,需要通過resetlogs方式打開數據庫

通過備份文件重建控制文件

--通過備份控制文件獲取創建控制文件腳本
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
    MAXLOGFILES 16
    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
    MAXDATAFILES 100
    MAXINSTANCES 8
    MAXLOGHISTORY 292
LOGFILE
  GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
-- STANDBY LOGFILE
DATAFILE
  '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8;
--開始恢復
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size                  2253664 bytes
Variable Size             452988064 bytes
Database Buffers         1140850688 bytes
Redo Buffers                7319552 bytes
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
  2      MAXLOGFILES 16
  3      MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
  4      MAXDATAFILES 100
  5      MAXINSTANCES 8
  6      MAXLOGHISTORY 292
  7  LOGFILE
  8    GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  9    GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
 10    GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
 11  -- STANDBY LOGFILE
 12  DATAFILE
 13    '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
 14    '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
 15    '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
 16    '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
 17    '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
 18  CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8;
Control file created.
SQL> recover database;
Media recovery complete.
SQL> alter database open;
Database altered.
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf';
Tablespace altered.
SQL> select open_mode from v$database;
OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE

成功恢復控制文件。

通過rman恢復控制文件

rman備份控制文件

RMAN> backup current controlfile format '/home/oracle/ctrl.ora';
Starting backup at 15-APR-21
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=29 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
including current control file in backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 15-APR-21
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 15-APR-21
piece handle=/home/oracle/ctrl.ora tag=TAG20210415T104457 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 15-APR-21
RMAN> list backup of controlfile;
List of Backup Sets
===================
BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
1       Full    9.64M      DISK        00:00:01     15-APR-21      
        BP Key: 1   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20210415T104457
        Piece Name: /home/oracle/ctrl.ora
  Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 1219869      Ckp time: 15-APR-21

rm刪除所有控制文件,嘗試添加數據文件,強制關閉數據庫,嘗試開啟到mount狀態。

[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ rm control02.ctl 
[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ rm /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl 
[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ ll
total 0
[oracle@orcl:/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl]$ ll /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl
ls: cannot access /oradata/orcl/control01.ctl: No such file or directory
SQL> alter tablespace USERS add datafile;
alter tablespace USERS add datafile
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00603: ORACLE server session terminated by fatal error
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
Process ID: 2333
Session ID: 1 Serial number: 9
SQL> shutdown abort;
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size                  2253664 bytes
Variable Size             452988064 bytes
Database Buffers         1140850688 bytes
Redo Buffers                7319552 bytes
ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

開啟數據庫到nomount狀態,rman恢復控制文件,恢復數據庫

--開啟到nomount狀態
SQL> startup nomount
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 1603411968 bytes
Fixed Size                  2253664 bytes
Variable Size             452988064 bytes
Database Buffers         1140850688 bytes
Redo Buffers                7319552 bytes
--rman恢復控制文件
RMAN> restore controlfile from '/home/oracle/ctrl.ora';
Starting restore at 15-APR-21
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=20 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring control file
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
output file name=/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl
output file name=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/orcl/control02.ctl
Finished restore at 15-APR-21
--開啟數據庫到mount狀態
SQL> alter database mount;
Database altered.
--恢復數據庫
RMAN> recover database;
Starting recover at 15-APR-21
released channel: ORA_DISK_1
Starting implicit crosscheck backup at 15-APR-21
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=20 device type=DISK
Finished implicit crosscheck backup at 15-APR-21
Starting implicit crosscheck copy at 15-APR-21
using channel ORA_DISK_1
Finished implicit crosscheck copy at 15-APR-21
searching for all files in the recovery area
cataloging files...
no files cataloged
using channel ORA_DISK_1
RMAN-06900: WARNING: unable to generate V$RMAN_STATUS or V$RMAN_OUTPUT row
RMAN-06901: WARNING: disabling update of the V$RMAN_STATUS and V$RMAN_OUTPUT rows
ORACLE error from target database: 
ORA-19922: there is no parent row with id 0 and level 1
starting media recovery
archived log for thread 1 with sequence 12 is already on disk as file /oradata/orcl/redo03.log
archived log file name=/oradata/orcl/redo03.log thread=1 sequence=12
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00
Finished recover at 15-APR-21

通過resetlogs方式打開數據庫

SQL&gt; alter database open resetlogs;
Database altered.

3、全部丟失,沒有備份

刪除全部控制文件,并且沒有備份控制文件

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;
select open_mode from v$database
                      *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00210: cannot open the specified control file
ORA-00202: control file: '/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.

手動創建控制文件

--通過spfile或者pfile文件獲取信息
--1.db_name
[oracle@orcl:/home/oracle]$ grep "db_name" pfile.ora 
*.db_name='orcl'
--2.字符集(通過dd if查看system01數據文件)
dd if=system01.dbf of=lucifer bs=8192 skip=801
--3.獲取數據文件和日志文件名稱
[oracle@orcl:/oradata/orcl]$ ll
total 2083264
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 328343552 Apr 15 15:14 example01.dbf
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 125829632 Apr 15 15:14 redo01.log
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 125829632 Apr 15 15:14 redo02.log
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 125829632 Apr 15 15:17 redo03.log
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 545267712 Apr 15 15:14 sysaux01.dbf
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall 786440192 Apr 15 15:14 system01.dbf
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall  30416896 Apr 15 15:14 temp01.dbf
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall  89137152 Apr 15 15:14 undotbs01.dbf
-rw-r-----. 1 oracle oinstall   5251072 Apr 15 15:14 users01.dbf
--重建控制文件(這里不需要加臨時文件,開啟數據庫之后需要reuse)
--開啟數據庫到nomount
STARTUP NOMOUNT;
--創建控制文件
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
    MAXLOGFILES 16
    MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
    MAXDATAFILES 100
    MAXINSTANCES 8
    MAXLOGHISTORY 292
LOGFILE
  GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
-- STANDBY LOGFILE
DATAFILE
  '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
  '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
;
--恢復數據庫
RECOVER DATABASE;
--執行過程
SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
  2      MAXLOGFILES 16
  3      MAXLOGMEMBERS 3
  4      MAXDATAFILES 100
  5      MAXINSTANCES 8
  6      MAXLOGHISTORY 292
  7  LOGFILE
  8    GROUP 1 '/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
  9    GROUP 2 '/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512,
 10    GROUP 3 '/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'  SIZE 120M BLOCKSIZE 512
 11  -- STANDBY LOGFILE
 12  DATAFILE
 13    '/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',
 14    '/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',
 15    '/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',
 16    '/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',
 17    '/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf'
 18  CHARACTER SET AL32UTF8
 19  ;
Control file created.
SQL> RECOVER DATABASE;
Media recovery complete.

打開數據庫,成功恢復控制文件

SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
Database altered.
--這里需要將臨時文件重用
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf' REUSE;
Tablespace altered.

三、建議

1、創建多份控制文件,建議分別存放在多個存儲的多個文件夾上,防止文件被誤刪或者存儲損壞。

2、打開歸檔模式。

3、保存當前庫的控制文件生成腳本(包括重要信息:dbname,字符集,文件路徑)。

4、定期備份數據庫文件,防止丟失,建議將備份放置到源端進行保存。

以上就是Oracle控制文件丟失恢復歸檔模式的詳細內容,更多關于Oracle控制文件恢復歸檔模式的資料請關注腳本之家其它相關文章!

相關文章

最新評論

美丽人妻被按摩中出中文字幕