• Oracle 函數大全

     更新時間:2009年07月19日 02:01:12   作者:  
    Oracle 函數大全(字符串函數,數學函數,日期函數,邏輯運算函數,其他函數)
    SQL中的單記錄函數
    1.ASCII
    返回與指定的字符對應的十進制數;
    SQL> select ascii('A') A,ascii('a') a,ascii('0') zero,ascii(' ') space from dual;
    A A ZERO SPACE
    --------- --------- --------- ---------
    65 97 48 32

    2.CHR
    給出整數,返回對應的字符;
    SQL> select chr(54740) zhao,chr(65) chr65 from dual;
    ZH C
    -- -
    趙 A
    3.CONCAT
    連接兩個字符串;
    SQL> select concat('010-','88888888')||'轉23' 高乾競電話 from dual;
    高乾競電話
    ----------------
    010-88888888轉23
    4.INITCAP
    返回字符串并將字符串的第一個字母變為大寫;
    SQL> select initcap('smith') upp from dual;
    UPP
    -----
    Smith

    5.INSTR(C1,C2,I,J)
    在一個字符串中搜索指定的字符,返回發現指定的字符的位置;
    C1 被搜索的字符串
    C2 希望搜索的字符串
    I 搜索的開始位置,默認為1
    J 出現的位置,默認為1
    SQL> select instr('oracle traning','ra',1,2) instring from dual;
    INSTRING
    ---------
    9

    6.LENGTH
    返回字符串的長度;
    SQL> select name,length(name),addr,length(addr),sal,length(to_char(sal)) from gao.nchar_tst;
    NAME LENGTH(NAME) ADDR LENGTH(ADDR) SAL LENGTH(TO_CHAR(SAL))
    ------ ------------ ---------------- ------------ --------- --------------------
    高乾競 3 北京市海錠區 6 9999.99 7

    7.LOWER
    返回字符串,并將所有的字符小寫
    SQL> select lower('AaBbCcDd')AaBbCcDd from dual;
    AABBCCDD
    --------
    aabbccdd

    8.UPPER
    返回字符串,并將所有的字符大寫
    SQL> select upper('AaBbCcDd') upper from dual;
    UPPER
    --------
    AABBCCDD

    9.RPAD和LPAD(粘貼字符)
    RPAD 在列的右邊粘貼字符
    LPAD 在列的左邊粘貼字符
    SQL> select lpad(rpad('gao',10,'*'),17,'*')from dual;
    LPAD(RPAD('GAO',1
    -----------------
    *******gao*******
    不夠字符則用*來填滿

    10.LTRIM和RTRIM
    LTRIM 刪除左邊出現的字符串
    RTRIM 刪除右邊出現的字符串
    SQL> select ltrim(rtrim(' gao qian jing ',' '),' ') from dual;
    LTRIM(RTRIM('
    -------------
    gao qian jing

    11.SUBSTR(string,start,count)
    取子字符串,從start開始,取count個
    SQL> select substr('13088888888',3,8) from dual;
    SUBSTR('
    --------
    08888888

    12.REPLACE('string','s1','s2')
    string 希望被替換的字符或變量
    s1 被替換的字符串
    s2 要替換的字符串
    SQL> select replace('he love you','he','i') from dual;
    REPLACE('H
    ----------
    i love you

    13.SOUNDEX
    返回一個與給定的字符串讀音相同的字符串
    SQL> create table table1(xm varchar(8));
    SQL> insert into table1 values('weather');
    SQL> insert into table1 values('wether');
    SQL> insert into table1 values('gao');
    SQL> select xm from table1 where soundex(xm)=soundex('weather');
    XM
    --------
    weather
    wether

    14.TRIM('s' from 'string')
    LEADING 剪掉前面的字符
    TRAILING 剪掉后面的字符
    如果不指定,默認為空格符
    15.ABS
    返回指定值的絕對值
    SQL> select abs(100),abs(-100) from dual;
    ABS(100) ABS(-100)
    --------- ---------
    100 100

    16.ACOS
    給出反余弦的值
    SQL> select acos(-1) from dual;
    ACOS(-1)
    ---------
    3.1415927

    17.ASIN
    給出反正弦的值
    SQL> select asin(0.5) from dual;
    ASIN(0.5)
    ---------
    .52359878

    18.ATAN
    返回一個數字的反正切值
    SQL> select atan(1) from dual;
    ATAN(1)
    ---------
    .78539816

    19.CEIL
    返回大于或等于給出數字的最小整數
    SQL> select ceil(3.1415927) from dual;
    CEIL(3.1415927)
    ---------------
    4

    20.COS
    返回一個給定數字的余弦
    SQL> select cos(-3.1415927) from dual;
    COS(-3.1415927)
    ---------------
    -1
    21.COSH
    返回一個數字反余弦值
    SQL> select cosh(20) from dual;
    COSH(20)
    ---------
    242582598

    22.EXP
    返回一個數字e的n次方根
    SQL> select exp(2),exp(1) from dual;
    EXP(2) EXP(1)
    --------- ---------
    7.3890561 2.7182818

    23.FLOOR
    對給定的數字取整數
    SQL> select floor(2345.67) from dual;
    FLOOR(2345.67)
    --------------
    2345

    24.LN
    返回一個數字的對數值
    SQL> select ln(1),ln(2),ln(2.7182818) from dual;
    LN(1) LN(2) LN(2.7182818)
    --------- --------- -------------
    0 .69314718 .99999999

    25.LOG(n1,n2)
    返回一個以n1為底n2的對數
    SQL> select log(2,1),log(2,4) from dual;
    LOG(2,1) LOG(2,4)
    --------- ---------
    0 2

    26.MOD(n1,n2)
    返回一個n1除以n2的余數
    SQL> select mod(10,3),mod(3,3),mod(2,3) from dual;
    MOD(10,3) MOD(3,3) MOD(2,3)
    --------- -------- ---------
    1 0 2

    27.POWER
    返回n1的n2次方根
    SQL> select power(2,10),power(3,3) from dual;
    POWER(2,10) POWER(3,3)
    ----------- ----------
    1024 27

    28.ROUND和TRUNC
    按照指定的精度進行舍入
    SQL> select round(55.5),round(-55.4),trunc(55.5),trunc(-55.5) from dual;
    ROUND(55.5) ROUND(-55.4) TRUNC(55.5) TRUNC(-55.5)
    ----------- ------------ ----------- ------------
    56 -55 55 -55

    29.SIGN
    取數字n的符號,大于0返回1,小于0返回-1,等于0返回0
    SQL> select sign(123),sign(-100),sign(0) from dual;
    SIGN(123) SIGN(-100) SIGN(0)
    --------- ---------- ---------
    1 -1 0

    30.SIN
    返回一個數字的正弦值
    SQL> select sin(1.57079) from dual;
    SIN(1.57079)
    ------------
    1

    31.SIGH
    返回雙曲正弦的值
    SQL> select sin(20),sinh(20) from dual;
    SIN(20) SINH(20)
    --------- ---------
    .91294525 242582598

    32.SQRT
    返回數字n的根
    SQL> select sqrt(64),sqrt(10) from dual;
    SQRT(64) SQRT(10)
    --------- ---------
    8 3.1622777

    33.TAN
    返回數字的正切值
    SQL> select tan(20),tan(10) from dual;
    TAN(20) TAN(10)
    --------- ---------
    2.2371609 .64836083

    34.TANH
    返回數字n的雙曲正切值
    SQL> select tanh(20),tan(20) from dual;
    TANH(20) TAN(20)
    --------- ---------
    1 2.2371609

    35.TRUNC
    按照指定的精度截取一個數
    SQL> select trunc(124.1666,-2) trunc1,trunc(124.16666,2) from dual;
    TRUNC1 TRUNC(124.16666,2)
    --------- ------------------
    100 124.16

    36.ADD_MONTHS
    增加或減去月份
    SQL> select to_char(add_months(to_date('199912','yyyymm'),2),'yyyymm') from dual;
    TO_CHA
    ------
    200002
    SQL> select to_char(add_months(to_date('199912','yyyymm'),-2),'yyyymm') from dual;
    TO_CHA
    ------
    199910

    37.LAST_DAY
    返回日期的最后一天
    SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy.mm.dd'),to_char((sysdate)+1,'yyyy.mm.dd') from dual;
    TO_CHAR(SY TO_CHAR((S
    ---------- ----------
    2004.05.09 2004.05.10
    SQL> select last_day(sysdate) from dual;
    LAST_DAY(S
    ----------
    31-5月 -04

    38.MONTHS_BETWEEN(date2,date1)
    給出date2-date1的月份
    SQL> select months_between('19-12月-1999','19-3月-1999') mon_between from dual;
    MON_BETWEEN
    -----------
    9
    SQL>selectmonths_between(to_date('2000.05.20','yyyy.mm.dd'),to_date('2005.05.20','yyyy.mm.dd')) mon_betw from dual;
    MON_BETW
    ---------
    -60

    39.NEW_TIME(date,'this','that')
    給出在this時區=other時區的日期和時間
    SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') bj_time,to_char(new_time
    2 (sysdate,'PDT','GMT'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') los_angles from dual;
    BJ_TIME LOS_ANGLES
    ------------------- -------------------
    2004.05.09 11:05:32 2004.05.09 18:05:32

    40.NEXT_DAY(date,'day')
    給出日期date和星期x之后計算下一個星期的日期
    SQL> select next_day('18-5月-2001','星期五') next_day from dual;
    NEXT_DAY
    ----------
    25-5月 -01
    41.SYSDATE
    用來得到系統的當前日期
    SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'dd-mm-yyyy day') from dual;
    TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'
    -----------------
    09-05-2004 星期日
    trunc(date,fmt)按照給出的要求將日期截斷,如果fmt='mi'表示保留分,截斷秒
    SQL> select to_char(trunc(sysdate,'hh'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') hh,
    2 to_char(trunc(sysdate,'mi'),'yyyy.mm.dd hh24:mi:ss') hhmm from dual;
    HH HHMM
    ------------------- -------------------
    2004.05.09 11:00:00 2004.05.09 11:17:00

    42.CHARTOROWID
    將字符數據類型轉換為ROWID類型
    SQL> select rowid,rowidtochar(rowid),ename from scott.emp;
    ROWID ROWIDTOCHAR(ROWID) ENAME
    ------------------ ------------------ ----------
    AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAA AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAA SMITH
    AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAB AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAB ALLEN
    AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAC AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAC WARD
    AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAD AAAAfKAACAAAAEqAAD JONES

    43.CONVERT(c,dset,sset)
    將源字符串 sset從一個語言字符集轉換到另一個目的dset字符集
    SQL> select convert('strutz','we8hp','f7dec') "conversion" from dual;
    conver
    ------
    strutz

    44.HEXTORAW
    將一個十六進制構成的字符串轉換為二進制

    45.RAWTOHEXT
    將一個二進制構成的字符串轉換為十六進制

    46.ROWIDTOCHAR
    將ROWID數據類型轉換為字符類型

    47.TO_CHAR(date,'format')
    SQL> select to_char(sysdate,'yyyy/mm/dd hh24:mi:ss') from dual;
    TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'YY
    -------------------
    2004/05/09 21:14:41

    48.TO_DATE(string,'format')
    將字符串轉化為ORACLE中的一個日期

    49.TO_MULTI_BYTE
    將字符串中的單字節字符轉化為多字節字符
    SQL> select to_multi_byte('高') from dual;
    TO
    --


    50.TO_NUMBER
    將給出的字符轉換為數字
    SQL> select to_number('1999') year from dual;
    YEAR
    ---------
    1999

    51.BFILENAME(dir,file)
    指定一個外部二進制文件
    SQL>insert into file_tb1 values(bfilename('lob_dir1','image1.gif'));

    52.CONVERT('x','desc','source')
    將x字段或變量的源source轉換為desc
    SQL> select sid,serial#,username,decode(command,
    2 0,'none',
    3 2,'insert',
    4 3,
    5 'select',
    6 6,'update',
    7 7,'delete',
    8 8,'drop',
    9 'other') cmd from v$session where type!='background';
    SID SERIAL# USERNAME CMD
    --------- --------- ------------------------------ ------
    1 1 none
    2 1 none
    3 1 none
    4 1 none
    5 1 none
    6 1 none
    7 1275 none
    8 1275 none
    9 20 GAO select
    10 40 GAO none

    53.DUMP(s,fmt,start,length)
    DUMP函數以fmt指定的內部數字格式返回一個VARCHAR2類型的值
    SQL> col global_name for a30
    SQL> col dump_string for a50
    SQL> set lin 200
    SQL> select global_name,dump(global_name,1017,8,5) dump_string from global_name;
    GLOBAL_NAME DUMP_STRING
    ------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------
    ORACLE.WORLD Typ=1 Len=12 CharacterSet=ZHS16GBK: W,O,R,L,D

    54.EMPTY_BLOB()和EMPTY_CLOB()
    這兩個函數都是用來對大數據類型字段進行初始化操作的函數

    55.GREATEST
    返回一組表達式中的最大值,即比較字符的編碼大小.
    SQL> select greatest('AA','AB','AC') from dual;
    GR
    --
    AC
    SQL> select greatest('啊','安','天') from dual;
    GR
    --


    56.LEAST
    返回一組表達式中的最小值
    SQL> select least('啊','安','天') from dual;
    LE
    --


    57.UID
    返回標識當前用戶的唯一整數
    SQL> show user
    USER 為"GAO"
    SQL> select username,user_id from dba_users where user_id=uid;
    USERNAME USER_ID
    ------------------------------ ---------
    GAO 25

    58.USER
    返回當前用戶的名字
    SQL> select user from dual;
    USER
    ------------------------------
    GAO

    59.USEREVN
    返回當前用戶環境的信息,opt可以是:
    ENTRYID,SESSIONID,TERMINAL,ISDBA,LABLE,LANGUAGE,CLIENT_INFO,LANG,VSIZE
    ISDBA 查看當前用戶是否是DBA如果是則返回true
    SQL> select userenv('isdba') from dual;
    USEREN
    ------
    FALSE
    SQL> select userenv('isdba') from dual;
    USEREN
    ------
    TRUE
    SESSION
    返回會話標志
    SQL> select userenv('sessionid') from dual;
    USERENV('SESSIONID')
    --------------------
    152
    ENTRYID
    返回會話人口標志
    SQL> select userenv('entryid') from dual;
    USERENV('ENTRYID')
    ------------------
    0
    INSTANCE
    返回當前INSTANCE的標志
    SQL> select userenv('instance') from dual;
    USERENV('INSTANCE')
    -------------------
    1
    LANGUAGE
    返回當前環境變量
    SQL> select userenv('language') from dual;
    USERENV('LANGUAGE')
    ----------------------------------------------------
    SIMPLIFIED CHINESE_CHINA.ZHS16GBK
    LANG
    返回當前環境的語言的縮寫
    SQL> select userenv('lang') from dual;
    USERENV('LANG')
    ----------------------------------------------------
    ZHS
    TERMINAL
    返回用戶的終端或機器的標志
    SQL> select userenv('terminal') from dual;
    USERENV('TERMINA
    ----------------
    GAO
    VSIZE(X)
    返回X的大小(字節)數
    SQL> select vsize(user),user from dual;
    VSIZE(USER) USER
    ----------- ------------------------------
    6 SYSTEM


    60.AVG(DISTINCT|ALL)
    all表示對所有的值求平均值,distinct只對不同的值求平均值
    SQLWKS> create table table3(xm varchar(8),sal number(7,2));
    語句已處理。
    SQLWKS> insert into table3 values('gao',1111.11);
    SQLWKS> insert into table3 values('gao',1111.11);
    SQLWKS> insert into table3 values('zhu',5555.55);
    SQLWKS> commit;
    SQL> select avg(distinct sal) from gao.table3;
    AVG(DISTINCTSAL)
    ----------------
    3333.33
    SQL> select avg(all sal) from gao.table3;
    AVG(ALLSAL)
    -----------
    2592.59

    61.MAX(DISTINCT|ALL)
    求最大值,ALL表示對所有的值求最大值,DISTINCT表示對不同的值求最大值,相同的只取一次
    SQL> select max(distinct sal) from scott.emp;
    MAX(DISTINCTSAL)
    ----------------
    5000

    62.MIN(DISTINCT|ALL)
    求最小值,ALL表示對所有的值求最小值,DISTINCT表示對不同的值求最小值,相同的只取一次
    SQL> select min(all sal) from gao.table3;
    MIN(ALLSAL)
    -----------
    1111.11

    63.STDDEV(distinct|all)
    求標準差,ALL表示對所有的值求標準差,DISTINCT表示只對不同的值求標準差
    SQL> select stddev(sal) from scott.emp;
    STDDEV(SAL)
    -----------
    1182.5032
    SQL> select stddev(distinct sal) from scott.emp;
    STDDEV(DISTINCTSAL)
    -------------------
    1229.951

    64.VARIANCE(DISTINCT|ALL)
    求協方差
    SQL> select variance(sal) from scott.emp;
    VARIANCE(SAL)
    -------------
    1398313.9

    65.GROUP BY
    主要用來對一組數進行統計
    SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp group by deptno;
    DEPTNO COUNT(*) SUM(SAL)
    --------- --------- ---------
    10 3 8750
    20 5 10875
    30 6 9400

    66.HAVING
    對分組統計再加限制條件
    SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp group by deptno having count(*)>=5;
    DEPTNO COUNT(*) SUM(SAL)
    --------- --------- ---------
    20 5 10875
    30 6 9400
    SQL> select deptno,count(*),sum(sal) from scott.emp having count(*)>=5 group by deptno ;
    DEPTNO COUNT(*) SUM(SAL)
    --------- --------- ---------
    20 5 10875
    30 6 9400

    67.ORDER BY
    用于對查詢到的結果進行排序輸出
    SQL> select deptno,ename,sal from scott.emp order by deptno,sal desc;
    DEPTNO ENAME SAL
    --------- ---------- ---------
    10 KING 5000
    10 CLARK 2450
    10 MILLER 1300
    20 SCOTT 3000
    20 FORD 3000
    20 JONES 2975
    20 ADAMS 1100
    20 SMITH 800
    30 BLAKE 2850
    30 ALLEN 1600
    30 TURNER 1500
    30 WARD 1250
    30 MARTIN 1250
    30 JAMES 950

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